POLYPLOID HOSTAS

Polyploid plants contain more than two sets of chromosomes (diploid). A tetraploid, for example, has four complete sets of chromosomes in each of three apical layers, expressed as 4-4-4. A ploidy chimera, on the other hand, has different ploidy among the apical layers (for example, 4-2-2). The list which follows includes both those which are totally tetraploid and ploidy chimeras.

Many hosta cultivars have been suggested to be polyploids, but relatively few have actually been checked to verify it. One method to determine ploidy level is by flow cytometry. This research has been conducted primarily by by Ben J. M. Zonneveld, formerly at Leiden University in The Netherlands and currently at Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden.

Thick leaf substance is one indication of polyploidy, particularly when a sport or seedling is compared to the parent plant. However, leaf substance alone does not determine ploidy. Hosta 'Grand Tiara' for example, is thin-substanced (.007" thick) but is fully tetraploid (4-4-4). On the other hand, Hosta 'Blue Mouse Ears' was previously thought to be tetraploid because of its thick substance (.014"). Testing by flow cytometry, however, has recently revealed that 'Blue Mouse Ears' is merely diploid (2-2-2).

While the list below includes all hostas which are currently thought to be polyploids, those species and cultivars which have been confirmed to be polyploid through laboratory testing are indicated with an asterisk (refer to the list of "Hostas Analyzed by Flow Cytometry"). The diploid or polyploid parent is shown in parentheses.

'Abba Dabba Wow'
 -- ('Abba Dabba Do')
'Abba Diana Reeck'
 -- (parentage unknown)
'Abba Windows'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Abiqua Recluse'  
 -- ('White Vision' x 'Sum and Substance')
* 'Academy Ametrine' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'After Midnight' 3.8-2-2
  ('Five O'Clock Somewhere')
'Aloha'
 -- ('Hawaiian Luau')
* 'Amber Tiara' 4-4-4
 -- ('Grand Tiara')
'American Idol'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'American Sweetheart'
 -- ('Sea Thunder')
'Americana'
 -- ('Loyalist')
* 'Amine Tachi' 3-3-3
 -- (rectifolia-type)
'Anne'
 -- ('Fortunei Aureomarginata')
* 'Atlantis' 4-2-2
 -- ('Abba Dabba Do')
* 'Avocado' 4-2-2
 -- ('Guacamole')
'Ayesha'
 -- ('June Fever')
'Bankrupt'
 --('Sum and Substance')
'Beauty Substance'
 --('Sum and Substance')
'Ben Vernooij'
 -- ('First Frost')
* 'Blazing Saddles' 3-3-3
 -- ('Beatrice' sdlg x 'Blue Umbrellas')
* 'Blizzard' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Blitz'
 -- ('Sugar and Spice')
'Blue Dome'
 -- ('Tokudama')
* 'Blue Ivory' 4-2-2
 -- ('Halcyon')
'Bobcat'
 -- ('Wolverine')
* 'Bottom Line' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Bounty'
 -- ('Lonesome Dove')
'Braveheart'
 -- ('Invincible')
'Breeder's Treasure'
 -- ('Exotic Treasure')

'Bright Star'
 -- ('Dark Star')
'Broadway'
 -- ('Border Street')
* 'Bubba' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Buckeye'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Bulletproof' 4-4-4
 -- ('Touch of Class')
* 'Buster' (1) 3.4-3.4-3.4 and (2) 3.5-3.5-3.5
 -- ('Friar Tuck')
* 'Captain Kirk' 4-2-2
 -- ('Gold Standard')
'Cathedral Windows'
 -- ('Stained Glass')
'Cherry Pie'
 -- ('Cherry Berry')
* 'Christmas Candy' 4-4-4
 -- ('Night before Christmas')
'Christmas Charm'
 -- ('Night before Christmas')
'Christmas Cookies'
 -- ('Night before Christmas')
'Christmas Lights'
 -- ('Christmas Tree')
* clausa var. clausa 3-3-3
'Clifford's Forest Fire'
 -- ('Sagae')
'Clifford's Stingray'
 -- ('Loyalist')
'Color Revolt'
 -- ('Revolution')
'Commander'
 -- ('First Mate')
* 'Corona' 3-3-3
  ('Sum and Substance')
'Cream Topping'
 -- ('Halcyon')
'Crickett Bailedout'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Crocodile Socks'
 -- ('Alligator Shoes')
'Crystal Tiara'
 -- ('Grand Tiara')
'Cyclone'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
* 'Dance with Me' 4-4-4
 -- ('Summer Music')
'Darwin's Standard'
 -- ('Gold Standard')
* 'David A. Haskell' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Domaine de Courson' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Doubled Up' 4-4-4
 -- (plantaginea)
'Dracula'
 -- ('Volcano Island')
* 'Dream Weaver' 4-2-2
 -- ('Great Expectations')
* 'Dust Devil' 4-4-4
 -- ('Whirlwind')
'Dutch Flame'
 -- ('Liberty')
* 'Eagle's Nest' 3-3-4.3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Electrum Stater'
 -- ('Abiqua Recluse')
'Emerald Charger'
 -- ('Stained Glass')
'Emmett Armitage'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Enterprise' 4-2-2
 -- ('Captain Kirk')
'Epiphany'
 -- ('Paradigm')
'Essence of Summer'
 -- ('Warwick Essence')
* 'Eternal Flame' 4-4-4
 -- ('Whirlwind')
'Fantasy Island'
 -- ('Island Charm')
'Ferris Wheel'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Final Summation' 2.9-2.9-2.9
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Final Victory' 4-4-4
 -- ('Victory')
* 'Fire and Ice' 4-4-4
 -- ('Patriot')
* 'Fireworks' 3.2-4-4
 -- ('Loyalist')
* 'First Light' 4-4-6
 -- ('Morning Light')
'First Mate'
 -- ('Kabitan')
* 'Five O'Clock Shadow'
  (1) 2-2-2
  (2) 2-3.8-3.8
 -- ('High Noon')
* 'Five O'Clock Somewhere' 3.8-2-2
 -- ('Five O'Clock Shadow')
'Flame Tiara'
 -- ('Amber Tiara')
'Flame Stitch'
 -- (ventricosa 'Aureomarginata')
'Flash of Light'
 -- ('Francee')
'Flemish Design'
 -- ('Designer Genes')
'Flemish Steel'
 -- ('Dewed Steel')
* 'Follow Your Dream' 2.9-2.9-2.9
 -- ('True North')
* 'Forbidden Fruit' 4-4-4
 -- ('Orange Marmalade')
'Foxfire Rose Red'
 -- ('Cherry Berry')
'Foxfire Snake Eyes'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
* 'Fragrant Gold' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Fran Godfrey' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Friar Tuck' 3.5-3-3
 -- ('Sum It Up')
* 'Frosted Dimples' 4-4-4
 -- ('Blue Dimples' x 'Silver Frost')
'Game Boy'
 -- ('Liberty')
'Giantland Cup of Java'
 --('Sum and Substance')
'Gift of Sight'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Golden Hawaiian Luau'
 -- ('Hawaiian Luau')
* 'Golden Needles' 4-4-4
 -- ('Silver Threads & Golden Needles')
'Golden Piecrust'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Golden Substance'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Goodness Gracious' 4-2-2
 -- ('Satisfaction')
* 'Grand Marquee' 2-2-2 and 4-2-2
 -- ('Carder Blue')
* 'Grand Prize' 3.6-2-2
 -- ('Grand Tiara')
* 'Grand Tiara' 4-2-2 and 4-4-4
 -- ('Golden Tiara')
'Grand Total'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Great Escape' 4-2-2
 -- ('Halcyon')
'Green Army Man'
 -- ('September Sun')
'Green Gables'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Green Sleeve'
 -- ('Summer Music')

* 'Guardian Angel' 3-3-3
 -- ('Blue Angel')
* 'Gunther's Prize' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Hands Up' 4-4-4
 -- ('Praying Hands')
'Hawaiian Luau'
 -- ('Pineapple Upsidedown Cake')
* 'Heat Wave' 4-2-2
 -- ('Bright Lights')
* 'Heaven Scent' 4-2-2
 -- (plantaginea)
'Heavenly Tiara'
 -- ('Grand Tiara')
'Hi Ho Silver'
 -- ('Ginko Craig')
* 'High Society' 1.9-1.9-2.1
 -- ('June')
'High Voltage'
 -- ('Paradise Power')
'Hirao Zeus'
 -- ('Tokudama')
* 'Holly's Honey' 3-3-3
 -- (ventricosa)
'Hollywood Lights'
 -- ('On Stage')
'Holy Mole'
 -- ('Guacamole')
'Honeysong Dream Edge'
  ('Sum and Substance')
'Hypnosis'
 -- ('Pathfinder')
* 'Independence' 4-4-4
 -- ('Revolution')
* 'Iris Frazier' 3-2-2
 -- ('Five O'Clock Somewhere')
'Irish Hills'
  ('Sum and Substance')
'Iron Sky'
 -- ('Flemish Sky')
* 'Ivory Coast' 4-2-2
 -- ('Sagae')
'Jade Stone'
 -- ('Guacamole')
'Jawbreaker'
 -- ('Fragrant Blue')
* 'Jaz' 2.4-2.4-2.4
  ('Sum and Substance' x yingeri)
'Jilted Lover'
 -- ('Summer Lovin')
* 'Jim Cooper' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Jolly Green Dwarf' 4-4-4
 -- (ventricosa x unknown)
* 'Joyce Trott' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Justine' 4-4-4
 -- ('June Fever')
'Karin'
 -- ('Anne')
* 'Kiwi Black Magic' 4-4-4
 -- (sieboldiana x ventricosa)
'La Donna'
 -- ('Dinky Donna')
* 'Lady Isobel Barnett' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Lakeside Beach Captain'
 -- ('Lakeside Shore Master')
* 'Lakeside Black Satin' 4-4-4
 -- (ventricosa seedling
* 'Lakeside Coal Miner' 3-3-3
 -- ("Seedling 10" selfed)
'Lakeside Sir Logan'
 -- (parentage unknown)
* 'Last Dance' 3-3-4
 -- (sport of a 'Summer Music' sport)
'Laverne and Shirley'
 -- ('Linda Sue')
*'Leather Sheen' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance' x venusta seedling)
'Let Me Entertain You'
 -- ('Gypsy Rose Tease')
* 'Lettuce Salad' 4-4-4
 -- ('Summer Breeze')
* 'Liberty' 4-2-2
 -- ('Sagae')
'Light Hearted'
 -- (seedling selection)
* 'Linda Sue' 4-2-2
 -- ('Frances Williams')
'Lion Island'
 -- ('Ōshimajishi')
* 'Little Blue' 3-3-3
 -- (ventricosa)
* 'Little Treasure' 4-2-2
 -- ('Little Jay')
* 'Lodestar' 2.7-2.7-2.7
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Lovely Loretta' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Loyalist' 4-4-4
 -- ('Patriot')
'Lucy and Ethel'
 -- ('Linda Sue')
* 'M. Owen Papuga' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Majesty' 4-2-2
 -- ('Sagae')
'Mango Smoothie'
 -- ('Mango Tango')
* 'Mango Tango' 4-2.8-4
 -- ('Dance with Me')
'Mantis'
  ('Lancifolia')
'Mellow Mood'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
* 'Metallic Sheen' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Middle Ridge' 4-2-2
 -- ('Undulata Univittata')
'Midnight Ride'
 -- ('Paul Revere')
* 'Minuteman' 4-4-4
 -- ('Francee')
* 'Mojito' 4-4-4
 -- ('Avocado')
'Monster Ears'
 -- ('Sunset Grooves')
* 'Morning Light' 4-4-4
 -- ('Twilight')
* 'Mourning Dove' 4-2-2
 -- ('Mikawa-no-yuki' x 'Blue Jay')
*'My Friend Bertha' 4-4-4
 -- ('Blue Mouse Ears')
'Mystic'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
* 'Nancy Gill' 2.7-2.7-2.7 and 2.8-2.8-2.8
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Neutron Star' 4-4-4
 -- ('Yonbaitai Shironakafu')
* 'New Wave' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Night before Christmas' 4-2-2
 -- ('White Christmas')
'Ocean Isle Tornado'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
'Olympic Glacier'
 -- ('Pathfinder')
* 'Olympic Sunrise' 4-2-2
 -- ('Katherine Lewis')
* 'Orange Star' 4-4-4
 -- ('June Fever')
* 'Otome' 4-4-4
 -- (identification uncertain)
'Paradise Breeze'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
'Paradise Glory'
 -- ('Paul's Glory')
'Paradise Gold Line'
 -- (ventricosa 'Aureomarginata')
'Paradise on Fire'
 -- ('Fire and Ice')
'Paradise Sunshine'
 -- ('Guacamole')
* 'Parhelion' 3-3-3
 --('Sum and Substance')
* 'Pathfinder' 4-4-4
 -- ('Francee')
* 'Patriot' 4-2-2 and 4-4-4
 -- ('Francee')
'Patriot Pride'
 -- ('Patriot')

'Patriot's Fire'
 -- ('Francee')
'Patriotic'
 -- ('Francee')
'Paul Revere'
 -- ('Patriot')
* 'PeeDee Elfin Bells' 3-3-3
 -- (ventricosa)
* 'Pitch Black' 4-4-4
 -- ('Prince of Darkness')
'Pomp and Circumstance'
 --('Sum and Substance')
* 'Prairie Sum Shine' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Prestige and Promise' 3.8-3.8-2
 -- ('Cadillac')
* 'Prince of Darkness'
 -- 4-4-4 (unknown)
'Private Dancer'
 -- ('Sky Dancer')
'Pro Tek Tor'
 -- ('Little Boy')
'Proud Dragon'
 -- ('Dragon Warrior')
'Proud Treasure'
 --('Secret Treasure')
'Punk Rock'
 -- ('Icicle')
'Purgatory'
 -- ('Prince of Darkness')
* 'Radiant Edger' 4-4-4
 -- ('Gold Edger')
* 'Rainbow's End' 2.5-2-2 and 2-2-2.5
 -- ('Obsession')
* 'Raleigh Remembrance' 2.5-2.5-2.5
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Red Hot Flash'
 -- ('PeeDee Gold Flash')
* 'Revolution' 4-4-4
 -- ('Loyalist')
* 'Rhino Blue' 4-4-4
 -- ('Rhino Hide')
* 'Rhino Hide' 4-2-2
 -- (parentage unknown)
'Rich Uncle'
 -- ('Electrum Stater')
'Rime Ice'
 -- ('Minuteman')
* 'Rosedale Genevieve' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Roy Klehm'
 -- ('Summer Serenade')
* 'Royal Super' 2-2-4
 -- ('Royal Standard')
* 'Second Wind' 4-4-4
 -- ('Whirlwind')
* 'Secret Ambition' 4-4-4
 -- ('Secret Love')
* 'Shade Master' 4-4-4
 -- ('White Vision' x 'Golden Rajah')
* 'Shiny Substance' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Silver Lode'
 -- ('Silver Streak')
'Skipper'
 -- ('First Mate')
* 'Small Sum' Aneuploid
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Smash Hit'
 -- ('Orange Marmalade')
'Snapping Turtle'
 -- ('Bulletproof' x 'Volcano Island')
'Sno Cone'
 -- ('Night before Christmas')
'Snowy Lake'
 -- ('Veronica Lake')
* 'Something Good' 3-2.7-2.7
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Sparkler' 3.2-3.2-3.2
 -- ('Fireworks')
'Spinach Soufflé'
 -- ('Garden Treasure')
* 'St. Paul' 4-2-2
 -- ('Paul's Glory')
'Stealth'
 -- ('Minuteman')
* 'Stitch in Time' 4-2.5-3.6
 -- ('Summer Breeze')
* 'Sum and Substance' 3-3-3
 -- (parentage unknown)
* 'Sum and Subtle' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Sum Cup-o-Joe' 2.8-2.8-2.8 and 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Sum It Up' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Sum Like It Hot'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Sum of All' 3-2.7-2.5
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Sum Piecrust'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Sum Streaker'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Sum Sunfish'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Sum Total'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Sum Treasure'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Sum Upper Crust'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Sum Whopper'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Summa Cum Laude'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Summary Judgment'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Summer Breeze' 4-4-4
 -- ('Summer Music')
* 'Summer Lovin' 4-4-4
 -- ('Summer Breeze')
* 'Summer Music' 4-2-2
 -- ('Shade Master')
'Sumsational'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Sunset Grooves'
 -- ('Rainforest Sunrise')
'Supersonic'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Sweet Innocence' 4-2-2
 -- ('Fragrant Bouquet')
'Taffeta'
 -- (ventricosa selfed)
'Tango Twist'
 -- ('Mango Tango')
'Tappen Zee'
 -- ('Electrum Stater')
'The Shining'
 -- ('Cathedral Windows')
* 'Tiffney's Godzilla' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Timothy'
 -- ('Gold Edger')
* 'Titanic' 3-2.8-2.8
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Topaz Tiara'
 -- ('Grand Tiara')
* 'Tossed Salad' 2.3-2.3-2.3
 -- ('Sum and Substance' x pycnophylla)
'Totally Awe Sum'
 --('Sum and Substance')
* 'Touch of Class' 4-2-2 and 4-4-4
 -- ('June')
* 'Touch of Frost' 4-4-4
 -- ('Touch of Class')
* 'Trade Wind' 4-4-4
 -- ('Whirlwind')
* 'True North' 2.9-2.9-2.9
 -- ('Lodestar')
*'Tucker Valentine' 3-3-3
 -- ('Herifu' x ventricosa)
* 'Twilight' 4-4-4
 -- ('Fortunei Aureomarginata')
'Unducosa'
 -- ('Undulata' x ventricosa)
'Variable Sum'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Velvet Moon'
 -- ('Abiqua Moonbeam')
* ventricosa 4-4-4
* ventricosa 'Aureomaculata' 4-4-4
 -- (ventricosa)
* ventricosa 'Aureomarginata' 4-4-4
 -- (ventricosa)
* ventricosa 'Golden Spot' 4-4-4
 -- (ventricosa)
* ventricosa 'Schwarzer Ritter' 4-4-4
 -- (ventricosa)
* ventricosa 'Spring Gold' 4-4-4
 -- (ventricosa)
* 'Venucosa' 3-3-3
 -- (venusta x ventricosa)
'Victor'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
* 'Vim and Vigor' 2.8-2.8-2.8
 --('Sum and Substance')
* 'Volcano Island' 4-4-4
 -- ('Paradise Island')
* 'Vulcan' 4-2-2
 -- ('Captain Kirk')
* 'Warwick Essence' 4-4-4
 -- ('Northern Halo' x plantaginea)
'Whirlaway'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
'Whirligig'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
'Whirling Dervish'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
* 'Whirlwind' 4-4-4
 -- ('Fortunei Hyacinthina')
'Whirlwind Flame'
 -- ('Whirlwind Tour')
'Whirlwind Tour'
 -- ('Whirlwind')
'Windfall'
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Winter Bouquet'
 -- ('Fragrant Bouquet')
* 'Winter Snow' 3-3-3
 --('Sum and Substance')
* 'Woop Woop' 4-4-4
 -- ('Pathfinder')
'Xanadu'
 -- ('Island Charm')
* 'Zebson' 3-3-3
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
* 'Zero Sum' 2.9-2.9-2.9
 -- ('Sum and Substance')
'Zorro'
 -- ('Justine')

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